Haiti References List


The bulk of the following list was copied from the Books For Understanding page dedicated to Haiti:
Anyone wishing to add or update this list – please use the contact page.
History     Early History and European Colonization

    Independence and Early Nationhood

    Twentieth Century to the Present


Culture: Arts, Language, and Religion

KeyG General interest

S Special interest

A Items that have been appended to the Books For Understanding list

Expert Directory Entry

List Published: 3/5/04

Last Updated: 02/14/2016 (malde)

The History of Haiti

    Early History and European Colonization

    Independence and Early Nationhood

    Twentieth Century: From the US Occupation to the Present

The History of Haiti: Early History and European Colonization

Caribbean Paleodemography: Population, Culture History, and Sociopolitical Processes in Ancient Puerto Rico

Antonio L. Curet

ISBN-13: 9780817314613 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780817351854 (paper)

University of Alabama Press, 2005


The Old Regime and the Haitian Revolution

Malick W. Ghachem

ISBN-13: 9780521836807 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780521545310 (paper)

Cambridge University Press, 2012

The Americas That Might Have Been

Julian Granberry

ISBN-13: 9780817314576 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780817351823 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780817383459

University of Alabama Press, 2005


Languages of the Pre-Columbian Antilles

Julian Granberry, Gary Vescelius

ISBN-13: 9780817314163 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780817351236 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780817381912

University of Alabama Press, 2004


Slavery in the Caribbean Francophone World: Distant Voices, Forgotten Acts, Forged Identities

Doris Y. Kadish, editor

ISBN-13: 9780820321660 (cloth)

University of Georgia Press, 2000


Blue Coat or Powdered Wig: Free People of Color in Pre-Revolutionary Saint Domingue

Stewart R. King

ISBN-13: 9780820330297 (paper)

University of Georgia Press, 2001


Colonialism and Science: Saint Domingue and the Old Regime

James E. McClellan III

ISBN-13: 9780226514673 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780226514680

University of Chicago Press, 2010

An Historical Account of the Black Empire of Hayti

Marcus Rainsford, Edited by Paul Youngquist and Gregory Pierrot

ISBN-13: 9780822352785 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780822352884 (paper)

Duke University Press, 2013

Hispaniola: Caribbean Chiefdoms in the Age of Columbus

Samuel M. Wilson

ISBN-13: 9780817304621 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780817381004

University of Alabama Press, 1990


The History of Haiti: Independence and Early Nationhood

Toussaint’s Clause: The Founding Fathers and the Haitian Revolution

Gordon S. Brown

ISBN-10: 1578067111 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781578067114 (cloth)

University Press of Mississippi, 2005


Hegel, Haiti, and Universal History

Susan Buck-Morss

ISBN-13: 9780822943402 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780822959786 (paper)

University of Pittsburgh Press, 2009


Toussaint Louverture and the American Civil War: The Promise and Peril of a Second Haitian Revolution

Matthew J. Clavin

ISBN-13: 9780812242058 (cloth)

University of Pennsylvania Press, 2009


From Saint-Domingue to New Orleans: Migration and Influences

Nathalie Dessens

ISBN-10: 0813030374 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813030371 (cloth)

University Press of Florida, 2007


A Colony of Citizens: Revolution and Slave Emancipation in the French Caribbean, 1787-1804

Laurent Dubois

ISBN-10: 0807855367 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780807855362 (paper)

University of North Carolina Press, 2004


Avengers of the New World: The Story of the Haitian Revolution

Laurent Dubois

ISBN-13: 9780674018266 (paper)

Harvard University Press, 2004


The Making of Haiti: The Saint Domingue Revolution from Below

Carolyn E. Fick

ISBN-10: 0870496670 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0870496670 (paper)

University of Tennessee Press, 1990


Modernity Disavowed: Haiti and the Cultures of Slavery in the Age of Revolution

Sybille Fischer

ISBN-10: 0822332906 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780822332527 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780822332909 (paper)

Duke University Press, 2004


The Haitian Declaration of Independence: Creation, Context, and Legacy

Edited by Julia Gaffield

ISBN 9780813937878 Ebook · 296 pp.

ISBN 9780813937885

University of Virginia Press, Jan 2016

and the Introduction:

“We must live independent or die”:

The Haitian Declaration of Independence in Atlantic Context

David Armitage, Harvard University, and Julia Gaffield, Georgia State University – PDF

Tree of Liberty: Cultural Legacies of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World

Doris L. Garraway, editor

ISBN-13: 9780813926858 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813926865 (paper)

University of Virginia Press, 2008


Haitian Revolutionary Studies

David Patrick Geggus

ISBN-13: 9780253341044 (cloth)

Indiana University Press, 2002


The World of the Haitian Revolution

David Patrick Geggus, Norman Fiering, editors

ISBN-13: 9780253220172 (paper)

Indiana University Press, 2008

The Impact of the Haitian Revolution in the Atlantic World

David Patrick Geggus, editor

ISBN-10: 1570034168 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781570034169 (cloth)

University of South Carolina Press, 2001


The Slaves Who Defeated Napoleon: Toussaint Louverture and the Haitian War of Independence, 1801-1804

Philippe R. Girard

ISBN-13: 9780817317324 (cloth)

ISBN eBook: 9780817385408

University of Alabama Press, 2011

Haiti’s Influence on Antebellum America: Slumbering Volcano in the Caribbean

Alfred N. Hunt

ISBN-13: 9780807131978 (paper)

Louisiana State University Press, 2006

Beyond the Slave Narrative: Politics, Sex, and Manuscripts in the Haitian Revolution

Deborah Jenson

ISBN-13: 9781846314971 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781846317606 (paper)

University of Chicago Press, 2011


Diplomacy in Black and White: John Adams, Toussaint Louverture, and Their Atlantic World Alliance

Ronald Angelo Johnson

ISBN-13: 9780820342122 (cloth)

ISBN eBook: 9780820346328

University of Georgia Press, 2014

The Americas in the Age of Revolution: 1750-1850

Lester D. Langley

ISBN-10: 0300077262 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780300077261 (paper)

Yale University Press, 1998


Echoes of the Haitian Revolution, 1804-2004

Martin Munro, Elizabeth Walcott-Hackshaw, editors

ISBN-13: 9789766402129 (paper)

University of the West Indies Press, 2009

Universal Emancipation: The Haitian Revolution and the Radical Enlightenment

Nick Nesbitt

ISBN-13: 9780813928029 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813928036 (paper)

University of Virginia Press, 2008


From Dessalines to Duvalier: Race, Colour and National Independence in Haiti

David Nicholls

ISBN-10: 0813522404 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0813522404 (paper)

Rutgers University Press, 1996


The Haitian Revolution, 1789-1840

Thomas O. Ott

ISBN-10: 0870495453 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0870495453 (paper)

University of Tennessee Press, 1973


Facing Racial Revolution: Eyewitness Accounts of the Haitian Insurrection

Jeremy D. Popkin

ISBN-13: 9780226675824 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780226675831 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780226675855

University of Chicago Press, 2008

You Are All Free: The Haitian Revolution and the Abolition of Slavery

Jeremy D. Popkin

ISBN-13: 9780521517225 (cloth)

Cambridge University Press, 2010

Democracy After Slavery: Black Publics and Peasant Radicalism in Haiti and Jamaica

Mimi Sheller

ISBN-10: 0813018838 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0813030617 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780813018836 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813030616 (paper)

University Press of Florida, 2001


The Opportunity, or Reasons for an Immediate Alliance with St. Domingo

James Stephen

ISBN-13: 9781108024365 (paper)

Cambridge University Press, 2011

Free and French in the Caribbean: Toussaint Louverture, Aimé Césaire, and Narratives of Loyal Opposition

John Patrick Walsh

ISBN-13: 9780253006271 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780253006301 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780253008107

Indiana University Press, 2013

Present State of the Spanish Colonies: Including a Particular Report of Hispañola, or the Spanish Part of Santo Domingo

William Walton

ISBN-13: 9781108024617 (paper)

Cambridge University Press, 2011

Encountering Revolution: Haiti and the Making of the Early Republic

Ashli White

ISBN-13: 9780801894152 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781421405810 (paper)

Johns Hopkins University Press, 2010


The History of Haiti: Twentieth Century: From the US Occupation to the Present

Backpacks Full of Hope: The UN Mission in Haiti

Eduardo Aldunate

ISBN-13: 9781554581559 (paper)

Wilfrid Laurier University Press and Co-published with the Centre for International Governance Innovation , 2010


Jean-Bertrand Aristide, translated by Carrol F. Coates

ISBN-10: 0813916747 (cloth)

University of Virginia Press, 1996


The New American Interventionism: Lessons From Successes and Failures; Essays from Political Science Quarterly

Demetrios James Caraley

ISBN-13: 9780231118491 (paper)

Columbia University Press, 1999


After War: The Political Economy of Exporting Democracy

Christopher J. Coyne

ISBN-13: 9780804754408 (paper)

Stanford University Press, 2007


Building a More Resilient Haitian State

Keith Crane, James Dobbins, Laurel E. Miller, Charles P. Ries, Christopher S. Chivvis, Marla C. Haims, Marco Overhaus, Heather Lee Schwartz, Elizabeth Wilke

ISBN-13: 9780833050434 (paper)

RAND Corporation, 2010


Democratic Insecurities: Violence, Trauma, and Intervention in Haiti

Erica Caple James

ISBN-13: 9780520260535 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780520260542 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780520947917

University of California Press, 2010

Building Sustainable Peace

W. Andy Knight, Tom Keating, editors

ISBN-13: 9780888644145 (paper)

University of Alberta Press and United Nations University Press, 2004


Collective Conflict Management and Changing World Politics

Joseph Lepgold, Thomas G. Weiss, editors

ISBN-10: 0791438430 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0791438449 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780791438435 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780791438442 (paper)

State University of New York Press, 1998


Missions for Science: U.S. Technology and Medicine in America’s African World

David McBride

ISBN-10: 0813530679 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813530673 (cloth)

Rutgers University Press, 2002


Humanitarian Assistance? Haiti and Beyond

Neil Middleton

ISBN-13: 9781906497767 (cloth)

University of Chicago Press, 2010


Haiti Rising: Haitian History, Culture and the Earthquake of 2010

Martin Munro

ISBN-13: 9789766402488 (paper)

University of the West Indies Press, 2010

Plunging into Haiti: Clinton, Aristide, and the Defeat of Diplomacy

Ralph Pezzullo

ISBN-10: 1578068606 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781578068609 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781604735338 (paper)

University Press of Mississippi, 2006


From Douglass to Duvalier: U.S. African Americans, Haiti, and Pan Americanism, 1870–1964

Millery Polyné

ISBN-13: 9780813034720 (cloth)

University Press of Florida, 2010

The Politics of Acknowledgement: Truth Commissions in Uganda and Haiti

Joanna R. Quinn

ISBN-13: 9780774818469 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780774818476 (paper)

University of British Columbia Press, 2010

Taking Haiti: Military Occupation and the Culture of U.S. Imperialism, 1915-1940

Mary A. Renda

ISBN-10: 0807826286 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0807849383 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780807826287 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780807849385 (paper)

University of North Carolina Press, 2001


The United States Occupation of Haiti, 1915-1934

Hans Schmidt

ISBN-10: 081352203X (cloth)

ISBN-10: 081352203X (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780813522036 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780813559940

Rutgers University Press, 1995


Red and Black in Haiti: Radicalism, Conflict, and Political Change, 1934-1957

Matthew J. Smith

ISBN-13: 9780807832653 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780807859377 (paper)

University of North Carolina Press, 2009


Silencing the Guns in Haiti: The Promise of Deliberative Democracy

Irwin P. Stotzky

ISBN-10: 0226776263 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0226776271 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780226776262 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780226776279 (paper)

University of Chicago Press, 1999


From War to the Rule of Law: Peacebuilding after Violent Conflicts

Joris Voorhoeve

ISBN-13: 9789053568675 (paper)

Amsterdam University Press, 2007


Return to Top

Haiti’s Society

Fault Lines: Views across Haiti’s Divide

Beverly Bell

ISBN-13: 9780801452123 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780801477690 (paper)

Cornell University Press, 2013

Walking on Fire: Haitian Women’s Stories of Survival and Resistance

Beverly Bell, Foreword by Edwidge Danticat

ISBN-10: 080148748X (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780801487484 (paper)

Cornell University Press, 2001


Afro-Creole: Power, Opposition, and Play in the Caribbean

Richard D.E. Burton

ISBN-10: 0801483255 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780801483257 (paper)

Cornell University Press, 1997


My Stone of Hope: From Haitian Slave Child to Abolitionist

Jean-Robert Cadet

ISBN-13: 9780292728530 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780292729292 (paper)

University of Texas Press, 2011

Restavec: From Haitian Slave Child to Middle-Class American

Jean-Robert Cadet

ISBN-10: 0292712030 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780292712034 (paper)

University of Texas Press, 1998


Haiti and the Americas

Carla Calargé, Raphael Dalleo, editors

ISBN-13: 9781617037573 (cloth)

University Press of Mississippi, 2013

A Promise in Haiti: A Reporter’s Notes on Families and Daily Lives

Mark Curnutte

ISBN-13: 9780826517838 (cloth)

Vanderbilt University Press, 2011

Gender and Violence in Haiti: Women’s Path from Victims to Agents

Benedetta Faedi Duramy

ISBN-13: 9780813563152 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813563145 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780813563169

Rutgers University Press, April 2014

Aids & Accusation: Haiti and the Geography of Blame

Paul Farmer

ISBN-10: 0520083431 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780520248397 (paper)

University of California Press, 1992


Partner to the Poor: A Paul Farmer Reader

Paul Farmer

ISBN-13: 9780520257115 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780520257139 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780520945630

University of California Press, 2010

Pathologies of Power: Health, Human Rights, and the New War on the Poor

Paul Farmer

ISBN-10: 0520235509 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780520235502 (cloth)

University of California Press, 2003


Sleeping Rough in Port-au-Prince: An Ethnography of Street Children and Violence in Haiti

J. Christopher Kovats-Bernat

ISBN-13: 9780813030098 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813033020 (paper)

University Press of Florida, 2006


Three Ancient Colonies: Caribbean Themes and Variations

Sidney W. Mintz

ISBN-13: 9780674050129 (cloth)

Harvard University Press, 2010

How Human Rights Can Build Haiti: Activists, Lawyers, and the Grassroots Campaign

Fran Quigley

ISBN-13: 9780826519931 (cloth)

Vanderbilt University Press, July 2014

Georges Woke Up Laughing: Long-Distance Nationalism and the Search for Home

Nina Glick Schiller , Georges Eugene Fouron

ISBN-10: 0822327910 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780822327813 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780822327912 (paper)

Duke University Press, 2001


Killing with Kindness: Haiti, International Aid, and NGOs

Mark Schuller

ISBN-13: 9780813553627 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813553634 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780813553641

Rutgers University Press, 2012

When the Hands Are Many: Community Organization and Social Change in Haiti

Jennie M. Smith

ISBN-10: 0801486734 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780801437977 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780801486739 (paper)

Cornell University Press, 2001


Haiti and the Haitian Diaspora in the Wider Caribbean

Philippe Zacaïr, editor

ISBN-13: 9780813034614 (cloth)

University Press of Florida, 2010


Return to Top

Culture: Arts, Language, and Religion

Oxford Picture Dictionary: English/Haitian Creole, Second Edition

Jayme Adelson-Goldstein, Norma Shapiro

ISBN-13: 9780194740142 (paper)

Oxford University Press, 2008


General Sun, My Brother: A Novel

Jacques Stephen Alexis

ISBN-10: 0813918998 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0813918901 (paper)

University of Virginia Press, 2001


In the Flicker of an Eyelid: A Novel

Jacques Stephen Alexis

ISBN-10: 0813921384 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0813921392 (paper)

University of Virginia Press, 2002


A Day for the Hunter, a Day for the Prey: Popular Music and Power in Haiti

Gage Averill

ISBN-13: 9780226032917 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780226032924 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780226032931

University of Chicago Press, 1997


Vodou Songs in Haitian Creole and English

Joanne Bartley, Chris Ballengee, Vanessa Brissault, et al, editors

ISBN-13: 9781439906019 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781439906026 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9781439906033

Temple University Press, 2011

Friends and Enemies: The Scribal Politics of Post/Colonial Literature

Chris Bongie

ISBN-13: 9781846311437 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781846311420 (paper)

University of Chicago Press, 2009


Artists, Performers, and Black Masculinity in the Haitian Diaspora

Jana Evans Braziel

ISBN-13: 9780253351395 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780253219787 (paper)

Indiana University Press, 2008


Duvalier’s Ghosts: Race, Diaspora, and U.S. Imperialism in Haitian Literatures

Jana Evans Braziel

ISBN-13: 9780813034577 (cloth)

University Press of Florida, 2010

Medicine and Morality in Haiti: The Contest for Healing Power

Paul Brodwin

ISBN-10: 0521575435 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780521575430 (paper)

Cambridge University Press, 1996


Framing Silence: Revolutionary Novels by Haitian Women

Myriam J. A. Chancy

ISBN-10: 0813523400 (cloth)

ISBN-10: 0813523400 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780813523408 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780813556406

Rutgers University Press, 1996


From Sugar to Revolution: Women’s Visions of Haiti, Cuba, and the Dominican Republic

Myriam J.A. Chancy

ISBN-13: 9781554584284 (cloth)

Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2012

Create Dangerously: The Immigrant Artist at Work

Edwidge Danticat

ISBN-13: 9780691140186 (cloth)

ISBN eBook: 9781400835904

Princeton University Press, 2010

Passage of Darkness: The Ethnobiology of the Haitian Zombie

Wade Davis

ISBN-10: 0807842109 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780807842102 (paper)

University of North Carolina Press, 1988


Haiti, History and the Gods

Joan Dayan

ISBN-10: 0520213688 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780520213685 (paper)

University of California Press, 1996


The Faces of the Gods: Vodou and Roman Catholicism in Haiti

Leslie G. Desmangles

ISBN-10: 0807843938 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780807843932 (paper)

University of North Carolina Press, 1992


Island Lives: Historical Archaeologies of the Caribbean

Paul Farnsworth

ISBN-13: 9780817310936 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780817313302

University of Alabama Press, 2001


Haiti Unbound: A Spiralist Challenge to the Postcolonial Canon

Kaiama L. Glover

ISBN-13: 9781846314995 (cloth)

University of Chicago Press, 2011


Zora Neale Hurston, Haiti, and Their Eyes Were Watching God

La Vinia Delois Jennings

ISBN-13: 9780810129085 (paper)

Northwestern University Press, 2013

The Haitian Revolution in the Literary Imagination: Radical Horizons, Conservative Constraints

Philip James Kaisary

ISBN-13: 9780813935461 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813935478 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780813935485

University of Virginia Press, February 2014

Vodou Nation: Haitian Art Music and Cultural Nationalism

Michael Largey

ISBN-13: 9780226468631 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780226468655 (paper)

University of Chicago Press, 2006


Creolizing Contradance in the Caribbean

Peter Manuel, editor

ISBN-13: 9781592137343 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781592137350 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9781592137367

Temple University Press, 2009

Kongo Graphic Writing and Other Narratives of the Sign

Bárbaro Martínez-Ruiz

ISBN-13: 9781439908167 (cloth)

ISBN eBook: 9781439908181

Temple University Press, 2013

Rara! Vodoo, Power, and Performance in Haiti and it’s Diaspora

Elizabeth McAlister

ISBN-10: 0520228235 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780520228238 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780520926745

University of California Press, 2002


Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn

Karen McCarthy Brown

ISBN-10: 0520224752 (paper)

ISBN-13: 9780520268104 (paper)

University of California Press, 2001


Faith Makes Us Live: Surviving and Thriving in the Haitian Diaspora

Margarita A. Mooney

ISBN-13: 9780520260344 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780520260368 (paper)

University of California Press, 2009


Different Drummers: Rhythm and Race in the Americas

Martin Munro

ISBN-13: 9780520262829 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780520262836 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9780520947405

University of California Press, 2010

Exile and Post-1946 Haitian Literature: Alexis, Depestre, Ollivier, Laferrière, Danticat

Martin Munro

ISBN-13: 9781846310799 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781846318542 (paper)

Liverpool University Press, 2007

Afro-Caribbean Religions: An Introduction to Their Historical, Cultural, and Sacred Traditions

Nathaniel Samuel Murrell

ISBN-13: 9781439900406 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781439900413 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9781439901755

Temple University Press, 2009

The Company of Heaven: Stories from Haiti

Marilene Phipps-Kettlewell

ISBN-13: 9781587299216 (paper)

ISBN eBook: 9781587299506

University of Iowa Press, 2010

Haitian Vodou Flags

Patrick Arthur Polk

ISBN-10: 1578060249 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9781578060245 (cloth)

University Press of Mississippi, 1998


The Spirits and the Law: Vodou and Power in Haiti

Kate Ramsey

ISBN-13: 9780226703794 (cloth)

University of Chicago Press, 2011


Migration and Vodou

Karen E. Richman

ISBN-13: 9780813028354 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780813033259 (paper)

University Press of Florida, 2008

Children of Heroes

Lyonel Trouillot, Translated by Linda Coverdale

ISBN-13: 9780803244504 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780803294592 (paper)

University of Nebraska Press, 2008


Street of Lost Footsteps

Lyonel Trouillot

ISBN-13: 9780803244436 (cloth)

ISBN-13: 9780803294509 (paper)

University of Nebraska Press, 2003


Return to Top


Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.